Cancer Term Glossary

1-(2’-deoxy-2’-fluoro-ß-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil(1-(2'-dee-OK-see-2'- FLOOR-oh-BAY-tuh-dee-uh-RA-bin-oh-fyoor-AN-oh-sil YOOR-uh-sil)
A substance being studied in the treatment of advanced solid tumors and lymphomas. It blocks the growth of cells and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of uracil analog. Also called FAU.
1-methyl-d-tryptophan(… MEH-thul-d-TRIP-toh-fan)
A substance being studied in the treatment of melanoma and many other types of cancer. 1-methyl-d-tryptophan blocks the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan, which is needed for T cells (a type of immune system cell) to kill tumor cells. Giving 1-methyl-d-tryptophan to patients who have received chemotherapy for cancer may help kill more tumor cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor and immunosuppressant. Also called D-1MT.
10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called folate analogs.
11C topotecan(... toh-poh-TEE-kan)
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including ovarian cancer and lung cancer. 11C topotecan is a radioactive form of the anticancer drug topotecan. It builds up in tumor tissues and is detected by positron emission tomography (PET). It may be used to help determine whether treatment with topotecan will work. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor.
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate(12-oh-TEH-truh-DEK-uh-noyl-FOR-bol-13-A-seh-TAYT)
A substance being studied in the treatment of hematologic cancers. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and TPA.
126–F
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in 126–F have been tested, and none of them has been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. 126–F is not available in the United States. Also called Cancell, Cantron, Jim’s Juice, JS–101, JS–114, Protocel, and Sheridan’s Formula.
13-cis retinoic acid(... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid)
A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called isotretinoin.
131I-MIBG
A radioactive substance that is used in imaging tests, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.
1572 form
A form that must be filed by an investigator running a clinical trial to study a new drug or agent. The investigator agrees to follow the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Code of Federal Regulations for the clinical trial. The investigator verifies that he or she has the experience and background needed to conduct the trial and that it will be done in a way that is ethical and scientifically sound. Also called Form FDA 1572-Statement of Investigator.
17-AAG
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-AAG helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and tanespimycin.
17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin(17-dy-MEH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-EH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-17-dee-meh-THOK-see-gel-DAN-uh-MY-sin)
17-DMAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called geldanamycin analogs.
17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin(17-N-A-lul-uh-MEE-noh-17-DEE-meh-THOK-sih-gel-DAN-uh-MY-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-AAG and tanespimycin.
18F-EF5
A substance that is being studied in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to detect tumor hypoxia (a low level of oxygen in the tumor).This may help predict how the tumor will respond to treatment. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals. Also called fluorine F 18 EF5.
18F-FLT
A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 18F-FLT is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine and fluorothymidine F 18.
18F-fluoromisonidazole(…-FLOOR-oh-MY-soh-NID-uh-sole)
A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-fluoromisonidazole is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-fluoromisonidazole in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-fluoromisonidazole is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-MISO and FMISO.
18F-MISO
A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-MISO is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-MISO in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-MISO is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromisonidazole and FMISO.
1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging(... NOO-klee-er mag-NEH-tik REH-zoh-nants SPEK-troh-SKAH-pik IH-muh-jing)
A noninvasive imaging method that provides information about cellular activity (metabolic information). It is used along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides information about the shape and size of the tumor (spatial information). Also called magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, MRSI, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.
2-methoxyestradiol
2ME2. A drug that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need in order to grow. It is derived from estrogen and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.
2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170(… MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tih-BAH-dee …)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by linking a monoclonal antibody called 170, which binds to the protein MUC-1, to a substance called 2IT-BAD, which binds radioactive substances. 2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170 may be used to detect cancer cells and kill them. It is a type of immunoconjugate.
3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone(... uh-MEE-noh-PEER-ih-deen ... KAR-bok-SAL-deh-hide THY-oh-SEH-mee KAHR-buh-ZONE)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-AP and Triapine.
3-AP
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and Triapine.
3-D
A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-dimensional.
3-dimensional
A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-D.
3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul kun-FOR-mul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional radiation therapy.
3-dimensional radiation therapy(3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy.
3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine(… dee-OK-see … FLOOR-oh-THY-mih-DEEN)
A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 18F-FLT and fluorothymidine F 18.
3F8
A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.
4-demethoxydaunorubicin(... DEE-meh-THOK-see-DAW-noh-ROO-bih-sin)
A drug used in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of antitumor antibiotic. Also called idarubicin.
4-hydroxytamoxifen
A form of the drug tamoxifen that is made by the body after taking tamoxifen. It can also be made in the laboratory, and may help decrease breast density. A topical form of 4-hydroxytamoxifen is being studied in breast cancer screening.
4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide
A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-NQO.
4-NQO
A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.
45 CFR 46
Laws set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to protect a person from risks in research studies that any federal agency or department has a part in. Also called 45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46, human participant protection regulations, and Protection of Human Subjects.
45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46(... FEH-drul REH-gyoo-LAY-shunz ...)
Laws set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to protect a person from risks in research studies that any federal agency or department has a part in. Also called 45 CFR 46, human participant protection regulations, and Protection of Human Subjects.
5-alpha reductase inhibitor(5-AL-fuh ree-DUK-tays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks an enzyme needed by the body to make dihydrotestosterone (a male sex hormone made from testosterone). Dihydrotestosterone can cause the prostate to grow. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are used to shrink an enlarged prostate gland and to improve the flow of urine in a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 5-alpha reductase inhibitor is a type of enzyme inhibitor.
5-fluoro-2-deoxycytidine(5-FLOOR-oh-2-dee-OK-see-SY-tih-deen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may prevent the growth of tumors by stopping cancer cells from dividing and by killing them. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called FdCyd.
5-fluorouracil(5-FLOOR-oh-YOOR-uh-sil)
A drug used to treat symptoms of cancer of the colon, breast, stomach, and pancreas. It is also used in a cream to treat certain skin conditions. 5-fluorouracil stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-FU and fluorouracil.
5-FU
A drug used to treat symptoms of cancer of the colon, breast, stomach, and pancreas. It is also used in a cream to treat certain skin conditions. 5-FU stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil and fluorouracil.
5-HT3 receptor antagonist(… reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist)
A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist and type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(5-hy-DROK-see-IN-dole-uh-SEE-tik A-sid)
5HIAA. A breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.
5-hydroxytryptamine(5-hy-DROK-see-TRIP-tuh-meen)
A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called serotonin.
5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist(.5-hy-DROK-see-TRIP-tuh-meen 3 reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist)
A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.
506U78
A drug used to treat certain types of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called Arranon and nelarabine.
5Q minus syndrome(...MY-nus SIN-drome)
A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q- syndrome.
5Q- syndrome(...SIN-drome)
A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q minus syndrome.
6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene(6-hy-DROK-see-MEH-thul-AY-sel-FUL-veen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene attaches to the cell's DNA and may block cancer cell growth. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called irofulven.
852A
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain adult and childhood blood cancers and other types of cancer. 852A may help the patient's immune system block tumor growth. It is a type of immune system modulator.
9-cis retinoic acid(... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid)
A substance being studied in the prevention of cancer. It is a type of retinoid.
90Y-DOTA-biotin
A compound that contains the radioisotope yttrium Y 90 linked to the chemical biotin. Biotin is a molecule that binds strongly to the chemical streptavidin. 90Y-DOTA-biotin will find tumor cells in the body that have been targeted by an antibody linked to streptavidin and kill them. It is being studied together with CC49-streptavidin in the treatment of cancer. Also called yttrium Y 90 DOTA-biotin.
9cUAB30
A substance being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer. It blocks an enzyme that keeps cells alive by adding material to the ends of chromosomes. Blocking this enzyme may cause the cancer cells to die. 9cUAB30 is a type of retinoic acid and a type of telomerase inhibitor.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC – James) 460 W. 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 Phone: 1-800-293-5066 | Email: jamesline@osumc.edu